The Cryosphere Discuss., 6, 2477-2536, 2012
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This discussion paper has been under review for the journal The Cryosphere (TC). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in TC.
Review article of the current state of glaciers in the tropical Andes: a multi-century perspective on glacier evolution and climate change
A. Rabatel1, B. Francou2, A. Soruco3, J. Gomez4, B. Cáceres5, J. L. Ceballos6, R. Basantes2,7, M. Vuille8, J.-E. Sicart2, C. Huggel9, M. Scheel9, Y. Lejeune10, Y. Arnaud2, M. Collet2,7, T. Condom2, G. Consoli2, V. Favier1, V. Jomelli11, R. Galarraga7, P. Ginot1,12, L. Maisincho5, J. Mendoza13, M. Ménégoz1, E. Ramirez13, P. Ribstein14, W. Suarez15, M. Villacis7, and P. Wagnon2
1UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement (LGGE) UMR 5183, Grenoble, 38041, France
2IRD/UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS/Grenoble-INP, Laboratoire d'étude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (LTHE) UMR 5564, Grenoble, 38041, France
3UMSA, IGEMA, Calle 27, Cota Cota, La Paz, Bolivia
4ANA, UGRH, Huaraz, Peru
5INAMHI, Iñaquito N36-14 y Corea, Quito, Ecuador
6IDEAM, Carrera 10 N20-30, Bogotá D.C., Colombia
7EPN, DICA, Ladrón de Guevara E11-253, Quito, Ecuador
8Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University at Albany, Albany, NY, USA
9Department of Geography, University of Zurich, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland
10CEN, CNRM-GAME, Meteo-France/CNRS, Saint Martin d'Hères, France
11UPS-Paris 1/CNRS/UVM-Paris 12, Laboratoire de Géographie Physique (LGP) UMR 8591, Meudon, 92195, France
12IRD/CNRS/IFSTTAR/Météo France/UJF-Grenoble 1/Université de Savoie/Grenoble-INP, Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers Grenoble (OSUG) UMS 222, St Martin d'Hères, 38400, France
13UMSA, IHH, Calle 30, Cota Cota, La Paz, Bolivia
14UMPC/CNRS/EPHE, Sisyphe UMR 7619, Paris, 75252, France
15SENAMHI, av. Las Palmas s/n, Lima, Peru

Abstract. The aim of this paper is to provide the community with a comprehensive overview of the studies of glaciers in the tropical Andes conducted in recent decades leading to the current status of the glaciers in the context of climate change. In terms of changes in surface area and length, we show that the glacier retreat in the tropical Andes over the last three decades is unprecedented since the maximum extension of the LIA (mid 17th–early 18th century). In terms of changes in mass balance, although there have been some sporadic gains on several glaciers, we show that the trend has been quite negative over the past 50 yr, with a mean mass balance deficit for glaciers in the tropical Andes that is slightly more negative than the computed global average. A break point in the trend appeared in the late 1970s with mean annual mass balance per year decreasing from −0.2 m w.e. in the period 1964–1975 to −0.76 m w.e. in the period 1976–2010. In addition, even if glaciers are currently retreating everywhere in the tropical Andes, it should be noted that as a percentage, this is much more pronounced on small glaciers at low altitudes that do not have a permanent accumulation zone, and which could disappear in the coming years/decades. Monthly mass balance measurements performed in Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia showed that variability of the surface temperature of the Pacific Ocean is the main factor governing variability of the mass balance variability at the interannual to decadal time scale. Precipitation did not display a significant trend in the tropical Andes in the 20th century, and consequently cannot explain the glacier recession. On the other hand, temperature increased at a significant rate of 0.10 °C decade−1 in the last 70 yr. The higher frequency of El Niño events and changes in its spatial and temporal occurrence since the late 1970s together with a warming troposphere over the tropical Andes may thus explain much of the recent dramatic shrinkage of glaciers in this part of the world.

Citation: Rabatel, A., Francou, B., Soruco, A., Gomez, J., Cáceres, B., Ceballos, J. L., Basantes, R., Vuille, M., Sicart, J.-E., Huggel, C., Scheel, M., Lejeune, Y., Arnaud, Y., Collet, M., Condom, T., Consoli, G., Favier, V., Jomelli, V., Galarraga, R., Ginot, P., Maisincho, L., Mendoza, J., Ménégoz, M., Ramirez, E., Ribstein, P., Suarez, W., Villacis, M., and Wagnon, P.: Review article of the current state of glaciers in the tropical Andes: a multi-century perspective on glacier evolution and climate change, The Cryosphere Discuss., 6, 2477-2536, doi:10.5194/tcd-6-2477-2012, 2012.
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