Journal cover Journal topic
The Cryosphere An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
08 Oct 2013
Review status
This discussion paper has been under review for the journal The Cryosphere (TC). The revised manuscript was not accepted.
Morphology and distribution of liquid inclusions in young sea ice as imaged by magnetic resonance
R. J. Galley1, B. G. T. Else1, N.-X. Geilfus1, A. A. Hare1, D. Isleifson1,5, L. Ryner4, D. G. Barber1, and S. Rysgaard1,2,3 1Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba, 125 Dysart Road, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2, Canada
2Greenland Climate Research Center, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Kivioq 2, P.O. Box 570, 3900 Nuuk, Greenland
3Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Aarhus, Denmark
4National Research Council Canada, Institute for Biodiagnostics, 435 Ellice Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3B 1Y6, Canada
5Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba, 75 Chancellor's Circle, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2, Canada
Abstract. In order to determine the morphology and distribution of liquid inclusions in young sea ice, magnetic resonance imaging of an 18 cm sea ice core was done using a Siemens 3T TIM TRIO human scanner. The sample was stored at about −20 °C until the beginning of a constructive interference steady state gradient echo sequence which lasted four and a half min. Here we present the first three-dimensional reconstruction of a brine drainage channel network in young sea ice using magnetic resonance imaging. The magnetic resonance image sequence data presented here clearly illustrate that brine drainage channels are established relatively quickly during ice formation, and indicates the amount and location of vertical and horizontal fluid permeability in young sea ice. A simple analysis of the image sequence reveals that magnetic resonance imaging is useful in describing the vertical profile of liquid fraction that compares well to volumes calculated for similar sea ice temperatures. Future work in this vein may include three-dimensional magnetic resonance scans of sea ice cores at in situ temperatures using different magnetic resonance sequences in order to improve the observation of inclusions, though this will necessitate both access to a scanner and the construction of a cooling system compatible with a magnetic resonance imager.

Citation: Galley, R. J., Else, B. G. T., Geilfus, N.-X., Hare, A. A., Isleifson, D., Ryner, L., Barber, D. G., and Rysgaard, S.: Morphology and distribution of liquid inclusions in young sea ice as imaged by magnetic resonance, The Cryosphere Discuss., 7, 4977-5006, doi:10.5194/tcd-7-4977-2013, 2013.
R. J. Galley et al.
R. J. Galley et al.


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