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The Cryosphere An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
11 Nov 2015
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A revision of this discussion paper for further review has not been submitted.
Antarctic slush-ice algal accumulation not quantified through conventional satellite imagery: Beware the ice of March
J. L. Lieser1, M. A. J. Curran1,2, A. R. Bowie1,3, A. T. Davidson2, S. J. Doust2, A. D. Fraser1,4, B. K. Galton-Fenzi1,2, R. A. Massom1,2, K. M. Meiners1,2, J. Melbourne-Thomas1,2, P. A. Reid5, P. G. Strutton3,6, T. R. Vance1, M. Vancoppenolle7, K. J. Westwood1,2, and S. W. Wright1,2 1Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 80, 7001 Hobart, Australia
2Australian Antarctic Division, Channel Highway, 7050 Kingston, Tasmania, Australia
3Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 129, 7001 Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
4Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-0819, Japan
5Bureau of Meteorology (CAWCR), G.P.O. Box 727, 7001 Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
6Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science, University of Tasmania, 7001 Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
7Laboratoire d'Océanographie et du Climat (Expérimentations et Approches Numériques), L'OCÉAN – UMR7159 CNRS/IRD/UPMC/MNHN, IPSL Bote 100, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris CEDEX 05, France
Abstract. Our current knowledge of broad-scale patterns of primary production in the Southern Ocean is derived from satellite ocean-colour estimates of chlorophyll a (Chl a) in the open ocean, typically in spring-summer. Here, we provide evidence that large-scale intra-ice phytoplankton surface aggregation occur off the coast of Antarctica during austral autumn, and that these "blooms" are largely undetected in satellite ocean-colour time series (which mask the ice-covered ocean). We present an analysis of (i) true-colour (visible) satellite imagery in combination with (ii) conventional ocean-colour data, and (iii) direct sampling from a research vessel, to identify and characterise a large-scale intra-ice algal occurrence off the coast of East Antarctica in early autumn (March) 2012. We also present evidence of these autumn "blooms" in other regions (for example, Princess Astrid Coast in 2012) and other years (for example, Terra Nova Bay in 2015) implying regular and widespread occurrence of these phenomena. The occurrence of such undetected algal accumulations implies that the magnitude of primary production in the Southern Ocean is currently underestimated.

Citation: Lieser, J. L., Curran, M. A. J., Bowie, A. R., Davidson, A. T., Doust, S. J., Fraser, A. D., Galton-Fenzi, B. K., Massom, R. A., Meiners, K. M., Melbourne-Thomas, J., Reid, P. A., Strutton, P. G., Vance, T. R., Vancoppenolle, M., Westwood, K. J., and Wright, S. W.: Antarctic slush-ice algal accumulation not quantified through conventional satellite imagery: Beware the ice of March, The Cryosphere Discuss., 9, 6187-6222,, 2015.
J. L. Lieser et al.


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