Journal cover Journal topic
The Cryosphere An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
doi:10.5194/tc-2016-183
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
26 Sep 2016
Review status
A revision of this discussion paper is under review for the journal The Cryosphere (TC).
Determining the terrain characteristics related to the surface expression of subsurface water pressurization in permafrost landscapes using susceptibility modelling
Jean E. Holloway, Ashley C. A. Rudy, Scott F. Lamoureux, and Paul Treitz Department of Geography and Planning, Queen‘s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
Abstract. Warming of the Arctic in recent years has led to changes in the active layer and uppermost permafrost. In particular, thick active layer formation results in more frequent thaw of the ice-rich transient layer. This addition of moisture, as well as infiltration from late season precipitation, results in high pore-water pressures (PWPs) at the base of the active layer and can potentially result in landscape degradation. To predict areas that have the potential for subsurface pressurization, we use susceptibility maps generated using a generalized additive model (GAM). As model response variables, we used active layer detachments (ALDs) and mud ejections (MEs), both formed by high PWP conditions at the Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory, Melville Island, Canada. As explanatory variables, we used the terrain characteristics elevation, slope, distance to water, topographic position index (TPI), potential incoming solar radiation (PISR), distance to water, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI; ME model only), geology, and topographic wetness index (TWI). ALDs and MEs were accurately modelled in terms of susceptibility to disturbance across the study area. The susceptibility models demonstrate that ALDs are most probable on hill slopes with gradual to steep slopes and relatively low PISR, whereas MEs are associated with higher elevation areas, lower slope angles and in areas relatively far from water. Based on these results, this method identifies areas that may be sensitive to high PWPs, and helps improve our understanding of geomorphic sensitivity to permafrost degradation.

Citation: Holloway, J. E., Rudy, A. C. A., Lamoureux, S. F., and Treitz, P.: Determining the terrain characteristics related to the surface expression of subsurface water pressurization in permafrost landscapes using susceptibility modelling, The Cryosphere Discuss., doi:10.5194/tc-2016-183, in review, 2016.
Jean E. Holloway et al.
Jean E. Holloway et al.
Jean E. Holloway et al.

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Short summary
Below ground pressurization occurs when there is more moisture in the soil pores than normal, and can potentially result in landscape degradation. We mapped features that are caused by this over pressurization, and generated susceptibility maps to find other areas on the landscape that could be susceptible in the future. The susceptibility maps identified areas that may be sensitive to pressurization, and helps improve our understanding of potentially hazardous permafrost degradation.
Below ground pressurization occurs when there is more moisture in the soil pores than normal,...
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