Journal cover Journal topic
The Cryosphere An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Journal topic

Journal metrics

Journal metrics

  • IF value: 4.790 IF 4.790
  • IF 5-year value: 5.921 IF 5-year
    5.921
  • CiteScore value: 5.27 CiteScore
    5.27
  • SNIP value: 1.551 SNIP 1.551
  • IPP value: 5.08 IPP 5.08
  • SJR value: 3.016 SJR 3.016
  • Scimago H <br class='hide-on-tablet hide-on-mobile'>index value: 63 Scimago H
    index 63
  • h5-index value: 51 h5-index 51
Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-2019-252
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-2019-252
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 06 Nov 2019

Submitted as: research article | 06 Nov 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal The Cryosphere (TC).

Using 3D turbulence-resolving simulations to understand the impact of surface properties on the energy balance of a debris-covered glacier

Pleun N. J. Bonekamp1, Chiel C. van Heerwaarden2, Jakob F. Steiner1, and Walter W. Immerzeel1 Pleun N. J. Bonekamp et al.
  • 1Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
  • 2Meteorology and Air Quality Group, Wageningen University, The Netherlands

Abstract. Debris-covered glaciers account for 18 % of the total glacier ice volume in High Mountain Asia, however the drivers controlling the melt of these glaciers are still largely unknown and their total contribution to the total glacier melt remains uncertain. Debris influences the surface energy balance and therefore glacier melt by influencing the thermal properties (e.g. albedo, thermal conductivity, roughness) of the glacier surface. In this study, the impact of surface properties of debris on the spatial distribution of micro meteorological variables, such as the turbulent fluxes, wind fields, moisture and temperature and eventually the conductive heat flux for a debris-covered glacier is investigated.

We simulated a debris-covered glacier (Lirung Glacier, Nepal) at a high-resolution of 1 m with the MicroHH model with boundary conditions retrieved from an automatic weather station (temperature, wind and specific humidity) and UAV flights (digital elevation map and surface temperature), and the model is validated with eddy covariance data. Subsequently, a sensitivity analysis was performed to ascertain how heterogeneous surface variables control the glacier micro-climate. Additionally, we show ice cliffs are local melt hot spots and that turbulent fluxes and local heat advection amplify spatial heterogeneity on the surface. The high spatial variability of small-scale meteorological variables suggests that point based station observations cannot be simply extrapolated to an entire glacier and should be considered in future studies for a better estimation of glacier melt in High Mountain Asia.

Pleun N. J. Bonekamp et al.
Interactive discussion
Status: open (until 01 Jan 2020)
Status: open (until 01 Jan 2020)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
[Subscribe to comment alert] Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version Supplement - Supplement
Pleun N. J. Bonekamp et al.
Data sets

Simulation output of Lirung glacier- Sensitivity tests P. N. J. Bonekamp, C. C. van Heerwaarden, J. F. Steiner, and W. W. Immerzeel https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3375325

Simulation output of Lirung glacier - REAL simulation P. N. J. Bonekamp, C. C. van Heerwaarden, J. F. Steiner, and W. W. Immerzeel https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3375490

Video supplement

Supporting video's P. N. J. Bonekamp, C. C. van Heerwaarden, J. F. Steiner, and W. W. Immerzeel https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3375333

Pleun N. J. Bonekamp et al.
Viewed  
Total article views: 134 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
93 39 2 134 0 0
  • HTML: 93
  • PDF: 39
  • XML: 2
  • Total: 134
  • BibTeX: 0
  • EndNote: 0
Views and downloads (calculated since 06 Nov 2019)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 06 Nov 2019)
Viewed (geographical distribution)  
Total article views: 60 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 60 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
1
 
 
 
 
Cited  
Saved  
No saved metrics found.
Discussed  
No discussed metrics found.
Latest update: 21 Nov 2019
Publications Copernicus
Download
Short summary
Drivers controlling melt of debris-covered glaciers are largely unknown. With a 3D turbulence-resolving model the impact of surface properties of debris on micro meteorological variables and the conductive heat flux is shown. Also, we show ice cliffs are local melt hot spots and that turbulent fluxes and local heat advection amplify spatial heterogeneity on the surface. This work is important for glacier mass balance modelling and for the understanding of the evolution of debris-covered glaciers
Drivers controlling melt of debris-covered glaciers are largely unknown. With a 3D...
Citation